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Are looking for my math games?
Welcome to a fun website stuffed full of resources to help you enjoy math.
The very top menu organizes the resources I use when teaching math classes or leading high school math club explorations. Besides this welcome, it has links to a Zoom room, online whiteboard, free online textbook, lecture archives, and an online calculator.
Next are five pages containing vast amounts of wisdom. You can ponder what it means to be a mather, read about a dumpload study skills, browse the classroom library, entertain yourself in playgrounds, and familiarize yourself with LCC resources.
The final menu has our math topics, arranged in six topics. The first three topics involve foundational math skills:
We start with the art of shapeshifting: everything we can do that changes a single number.
Then we look at mad science: everything we can do that involves combining numbers together.
Finally we consider justice: doing the same thing to both sides of an equation.
These foundational skills grant fluency with fractions, decimals, percentages, and measurement. But it is much easier to learn (or review) these skills in those three categories with silly names.
Next come three categories of applications:
First comes health decisions and looking closely at calories, metabolism, and recipes.
Then we consider personal finance decisions with a focus on mortgages and saving for retirement.
We conclude with business decisions that involve pricing and likelihood.
Have fun exploring the website! Try clicking on things. Use CtrlF to search for text.
Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.
 Albert Einstein
Our class meets Monday and Wednesday, 2:00 pm to 3:50 pm. Office hours are still to be determined.
Weekly homework is due weekly Monday at midnight of the following week. This allows students who do their homework on the weekend a chance to ask questions at the Monday study session before turning it in. (If a weekly quiz is takehome instead of inclass, it will also be due Monday at midnight.)
Our class uses Moodle for discussion forums, homework, and quizzes. Instead of a "news and announcements forum" I will send an email after every class. Please monitor your LCC email account!
You may call me David. I have taught Math 20 and Math 25 at LCC for over a decade. This is my first time teaching Math 105.
Math 105 is very similar to Math 25 but requiring a prerequisite familiarity with algebra allows us to go deeper into every topic. For example, Math 25 only studies annual annuities, but Math 105 includes annuities compounded with other time periods. Math 25 briefly mentions standard deviation, but Math 105 explores it more and calculates it. Math 25 discusses only basic probability, but Math 105 includes contingent, complementary, and conditional events. I am excited about leading students more deeply into the practical math I enjoy.
After you give me your code name, the following dropdown menu will personalize this page with your achievements.
Select your code name:
Math 105 Class Information Class times: Study Session times: Office Hours by appointment 4 credits, 4 lecture hours per week about 8 hours homework per week CRN 35386 
Instructor Information David Van Slyke website: http://mathoer.net Zoom room: https://lanecc.zoom.us/my/vanslyked work email: vanslyked@lanecc.edu work cell phone: (541) 3577551 office: Building 16 Room 261 (Please communicate with me using the above cell phone or LCC email. Please do not use my LCC office phone or moodle's messages.) 
Math 105 includes a review of basic Math 20 topics and greatly expands their reallife usefulness in problem solving, using data, and applications involving finance and probability.
You will be required to learn and use specific techniques and processes that may be different from what you have used in the past, and develop your ability to communicate mathematically by showing all work in a neat and organized manner.
Students are encouraged to use study groups for all types of homework. A study group can be classmates, or working with friends or family members. Studying inperson is best. Doing homework together on speakerphone or computer voice chat is also usuallly better than working alone.
Official Course Description: MTH 105 is survey of mathematical topics and applications of those topics for nonscience majors including probability, statistics, finance and exponential modeling problem solving. Math 105, 106, and 107 are a three course sequence but may be taken in any order, with a prerequisite of Math 095, Math 098, or equivalent course completed with a grade of C− or better within the past two years, or placement by the College's Math Placement Process.
You are welcome to use a cell phone calculator, except on the final exam (when cell phone use is not allowed).
Class times are informal discussions, not formal lectures. You may leave and return quietly without permission. When you have something to contribute, raising your hand might help me guide the flow of conversation and ensure all students have a chance to talk—or it might not be important to do. When speaking without raising your hand, please be polite and socially aware.
Although it has never been an issue in my many years of math teaching, please know that LCC instructors are Mandatory Reporters who cannot extend confidentiality to threats of imminent harm or death to one's self or others.
You must be present each week so I can see your face. If you cannot attend at least one of the week's classes or study sessions, then submit a link to a video of you doing homework or something like that. This expectation is for politeness and friendliness as a student to your classmates, as well as my attempt to prevent anyone from falling behind.
Our class uses a combination of numeric and achievement based grading. We do not use the unreliable Moodle gradebook.
The numeric part of grading requires earning your letter grade with thresholds to meet or exceed with your weekly quiz completion, final exam score, twiceweekly homeworks completed on time, and weekly discussion forums completed on time.
The weekly quiz has three problems, and happens at the end of Wednesday's class. You must get two of the three problems right (with small leniency for careless errors) for that quiz to be considered "complete".
Letter Grade  Complete Quizzes  Final Exam  Homeworks Completed  Discussions Completed 

A  9  85%  20  10 
B  8  75%  18  9 
C  7  70%  16  8 
D  6  65%  14  7 
F  below 6  below 65%  below 14  below 7 
The achievement part of grading lowers the requirement for complete quizzes by oneeigth per achievement. For example, a student earning 24 of the 54 achievements would only need an 6 complete quizzes to earn an A. This allows you to compensate for missing class by participating more outside of class.
The seven colors of achievements correspond to the seven aspects of being a mather: participation in discussions is red, devouring math is orange, exploring math is yellow, analyzing reallife issues is green, using resources is blue, taking a test is purple, and time management is brown. The requirement for weekly homeworks completed on time is decreased by two, and the requirement for and discussion forums completed on time is decreased by one, for each color in which you earn three or more achievements.
Achievements also use class participation to determine if your letter grade receives a + or −. You earn a − if you do not complete at least 14 achievements. You get a + if you complete 30 or more achievements.
Students who checking items off a list might enjoy a page that simply lists all of the achievements.
A grade of Incomplete is only for a student who has successfully completed 75% of the work before the end of the term, and can reasonably be expected to finish the work. Incompletes are used only in cases when serious illness or other emergency prevents a student from completing the course. See LCC's incomplete policy.
Our class has a lot of homework. Expect to spend 6 to 10 hours each week doing homework if you have an average math foundation from the previous class.
Please schedule different blocks of time for appetizer and real homework, as explained in the study skills page.
Please bring to class paper, a pencil, a highlighter, and a notebook.
You will need a scientific calculator that can do exponents, parenthesis, and a π key. The official class guidelines recommend a Sharp D.A.L. 500 calculator. This model is most popular. Some students instead use a Casio that is also inexpensive and also gets good reviews.
Our textbook is the PDF book Math in Society by David Lippman of Pierce College. The author has put many accompanying videos on YouTube.
You will, of course, need a computer and internet to use this website, the textbook, and other online resources, as well as to turn in assignments online.
Together our class times, study sessions, this class website, textbook, and other resources linked from the class website provide many different ways of understanding each math topic. Find the resources that work best for you!
One of your key tasks is to condense your class notes, thoughts, homework, and favorite example problems into an improved set of notes that you are useful when studying for the final exam. Preparing these notes carefully is invaluable!
LaneCC provides dumploads of resources to help students succeed. You can click on the image to the right to see my own compilation of student resources. Also see the tutoring section in the study skills page.
It is often valuable to visit an Early Outreach Specialist who is trained to connect students to whatever resources can help. The one who normally works most closely with Math 20 students is Katherine Kaylegian (email).
Instead of quiet office hours we have chatty study sessions!
These can serve several different purposes.
You do not need to bring questions to study sessions. It can be nice to simply study quietly while knowing that help is available from the instructor or classmates. That help can look like a few things:
The free tutoring provided by the Math Resource Center currently happens remotely.
First, make a reservation for a 30minute appointment using the website WC Online. This is quicker if you use the pulldown menu to select the topic in which you want tutoring.
Second, five minutes early before your appointment go to a Zoom meeting room named Study Annex Tutoring, where a front desk person will greet you and assign you to a "breakout room" in Zoom. The front desk person can also help you get Zoom working with text chat, audio, and/or video to best suit your needs and what tools you have available at home.
Third, your tutor joins you in the breakout room. Enjoy your live tutoring!
Math Resource Center online hours are Monday through Friday 9:00am to 4:30pm, and also 5:00pm to 8:00pm on Tuesday through Thursday. The Math Resource Center is considering offering some weekend hours. Please let them know if that would help your schedule.
Lane Community College is dedicated to providing inclusive learning environments. The Center for Accessible Resources coordinates all academic accomodations for students. If you anticipate or experience academic barriers due to a disability, to request assistance or accommodations, contact CAR at 5414635150 or accessibleresources@lanecc.edu.
The LCC Student Help Desk (nicknamed the SHeD) provides technology loans and support to students. It can be reached at 5414633333.
Distance learning is more immune to weather issues, but we should still know the routines...
Sign up for LaneAlert to receive emails or texts about weather closures! Log into mylane. In the Home tab, locate the box labeled Personal Information. Select the Lane Alert Emergency Notification link. Select which notifications you would like to receive. Scroll down to the very bottom of the page and click Save Changes.
You can also listen to KLCC (FM 89.7) or KUGN (AM 590 or FM 97.9) for campus closure information. You can also check the websites of LCC and FlashAlert.
If class is canceled or you are absent, please read ahead using the class website to familiarize yourself with the upcoming topics and assignments. Then we can more quickly cover the missed material.
LCC's website has more about its weather closure policies.
By LCC policy, missing all classes and assignments during the first week causes you to be dropped from the class.
The deadline for a tuition refund is 11:59 pm on the Sunday at the end of the first week of the class.
The deadline for schedule changes, dropping classes, grading option changes, etc. is February 26th.
The Winter term holidays are Martin Luther King Jr. Day (Week 3, Monday, January 18th) and Presidents Day (Week 7, Monday, February 15th).
Our final exam has a scheduled time Monday during finals' week, starting at 2pm (our normal class start time) and lasting for 110 minutes. This may or many not be useful to us.
You can add this calendar to your own calendar app using this ICAL address.
Please note that LCC policy allows students with three or more finals on the same day to reschedule one of them. Sometimes final exams may be taken early because of medical or other concerns.
Whenever you get stuck use a good first way to get help is with our class Get Help Forum.
But LCC has a lot of other resources, including lots of free tutoring!
During Winter term the Math Resource Center will be offering online tutoring using Zoom.
This is part of the Lane Support Hub and uses that hub's Zoom room.
The Math 105 tutors with whom you can reserve a halfhour appointment using MyWCOnline are named Kristen, Paula, Carrie, Cullen, Greg D., Mike H., and Zachary.
Contacting TRiO is another great source of tutoring if you qualify.
You can also visit an Early Outreach Specialist to quickly learn about college resources. You will be amazed how many resources there are, and how many people are ready to say "I got your back".
Since 2016 LCC has also paid to collaborate with eTutoringOnline.org. In theory, going to this websiteshould be a free way to get tutoring during the hours when the Math Resource Center is closed. However, the current shift nationwide to distance learning has made eTutoring Online really busy. The wait times for an appointment might be unworkable. So feel free to try eTutoring Online, but be warned.
This week, in addition to getting introduced to each other and to the course, we review some topics like percents, rates, and geometry, and use them to practice solving problems. We will also talk about appreciation, depreciation, and simple interest.
In this chapter, we begin to use math as a tool. This will be a recurring theme in the course.
Whenever you get stuck use the Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week One
1. Attend the Zoom sessions. The last 15 minutes of each Wednesday class has our weekly quiz. If you are ever absent, watch the archived videos of the lessons, ask questions, and check in by attending a study session or submitting a video of you doing math work.
2. Skim the textbook chapter about Problem Solving. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
3. Complete this week's activity. Work on your own as much as you can. Then review the answer key. This item will not be collected. It is just for you to make sure that you can use the math topics we are learning.
4. This week's discussion forum is for introducting ourselves. The requirement is what will usually be true: make a contribution soon, then come back and reply to two other students' posts. (Moodle should show a completion checkmark when you have done that.)
5. Complete the homework, part A and part B, before the end of the week. Keep trying each homework assignment until you get 8 out of 10 or more.
6. Perhaps go over Paula's weekly worksheet. If it is helpful, write out solutions for yourself to make sure you understand. You do not turn this in, but may contact me with specific questions if there are parts you don't get. Unfortunately, this worksheet does not have an answer key.
Week 1, Monday  review day  
Week 1, Wednesday  problem solving  
Study Session on Saturday  problem solving  not recorded  not recorded 
U. S. Census Data Spreadsheet which you only care about if exploring Paula's weekly worksheet
Tips for using online math videos:
1. Be selective! Watch the videos that you want to know more about. If you're already familiar with a topic, you may not need to watch the video.
2. Reuse! If you find a video that is helpful, you may want to watch it more than once. Make a note and review the video at a later time.
3. Go further! If you don't understand something from a video, or would like to see more examples, post in the weekly Get Help Forum.
Introduction to Percent
Ex 1: Relating Fractions, Decimals, and Percents
Ex 2: Relating Fractions, Decimals, and Percents
The Percent Equation
Ex 1: Solve a Percent Problem Using a Percent Proportion
Ex 2: Solve a Percent Problem Using the Percent Equation
Ex 3: Determine What Percent One Number is of Another
Percent of Change
Ex 1: Determine a Percent Change (Decrease)
Ex 2: Determine a Percent Change (Increase)
Metric Unit Conversions
Ex: Convert km/hr to meters per second
We start a new chapter this week: finance. We use our review of simple interest as a foundation for studying compound interest. This sets the stage for more advanced work in finance, such as saving for retirement and installment loans.
Whenever you get stuck use the Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week Two
1. Attend the Zoom sessions. The last 15 minutes of each Wednesday class has our weekly quiz. If you are ever absent, watch the archived videos of the lessons, ask questions, and check in by attending a study session or submitting a video of you doing math work.
2. Skim the textbook chapter about Finance. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
3. Complete this week's activity. Work on your own as much as you can. Then review the answer key. This item will not be collected. It is just for you to make sure that you can use the math topics we are learning.
4. This week's discussion forum is for investing anecdotes and savings account research. The requirement is what will usually be true: make a contribution soon, then come back and reply to two other students' posts. (Moodle should show a completion checkmark when you have done that.)
5. Complete the homework, part A and part B, before the end of the week. Keep trying each homework assignment until you get 8 out of 10 or more.
5b. This week we had a takehome takehome quiz
6. Perhaps go over Paula's weekly worksheet. If it is helpful, write out solutions for yourself to make sure you understand. You do not turn this in, but may contact me with specific questions if there are parts you don't get. Unfortunately, this worksheet does not have an answer key.
When studying finance formulas it is very important to learn which formula to use. All the formulas involve an initial amount (principal), an interest rate, and one or more payments. So the formulas look similar. Be sure to really understand what makes financial situations similar and different, and which formula to use for each situation. This week has this extra accordion section to focus on this issue!
Here are some hints on deciding which equation to use based on the wording of the problem.
The easiest types of problem to identify are loans. Loan problems almost always include words like: "loan", "amortize" (the fancy word for loans), "finance (a car)", or "mortgage" (a home loan). Look for these words. If they are there, you are probably looking at a loan problem. To make sure, see if you are given what your monthly (or annual) payment is, or if you are trying to find a monthly payment.
If the problem is not a loan, the next question you want to ask is: "Am I putting money in an account and letting it sit, or am I making regular payments or withdrawals every month/quarter/year ?" If you are letting the money sit in the account with nothing but interest changing the balance, then you are looking at a compound interest problem. The exception would be bonds and other investments where the interest is not reinvested—in those cases you are looking at simple interest.
If you are making regular payments or withdrawals, the next question is: "Am I putting money into the account, or am I pulling money out?" If you are putting money into the account on a regular basis then you are looking at a basic annuity problem, which is sometimes called a savings annuity. Basic annuities are when you are saving money. Usually in these problems your account starts empty, and has money in the future.
If you are pulling money out of the account on a regular basis, then you are looking at a payout annuity problem. Payout annuities are used for things like retirement income. You start with money in your account, pull money out on a regular basis, and your account ends up empty in the future.
Remember, the most important part of answering any kind of question, money or otherwise, is first to correctly identify what the question is really asking. Then determine what approach will best allow you to solve the problem.
For more practice, look at these slides and their answer key
Tips for using online math videos:
1. Be selective! Watch the videos that you want to know more about. If you're already familiar with a topic, you may not need to watch the video.
2. Reuse! If you find a video that is helpful, you may want to watch it more than once. Make a note and review the video at a later time.
3. Go further! If you don't understand something from a video, or would like to see more examples, post in the weekly Get Help Forum.
Simple Interest Formula
Ex 1: Determine an Account Balance Using Simple Interest
Compound Interest
Ex 1: Compounded Interest Formula  Quarterly
Ex 2: Compound Interest Formula  Determine Deposit Needed
Determine the Value of an Annuity
Payout Annuity Formula, Part 1
Payout Annuity Formula, Part 2
Note that Monday is the Martin Luther King Jr. Day holiday. There is no class.
This week we continue our study of finance by moving to more advanced topics: annuities, payout annuities, and loans. (We'll omit remaining loan balance.) These topics are useful in a variety of applications, such as retirement savings, car loans, mortgages, and refinancing a loan.
Whenever you get stuck use the Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week Three
1. Attend the Zoom sessions. The last 15 minutes of each Wednesday class has our weekly quiz. If you are ever absent, watch the archived videos of the lessons, ask questions, and check in by attending a study session or submitting a video of you doing math work.
2. Skim the textbook chapter about Finance. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
3. Complete this week's activity. Work on your own as much as you can. Then review the answer key. This item will not be collected. It is just for you to make sure that you can use the math topics we are learning.
4. This week's discussion forum is for for reflecting on your study skills and test preparation. The requirement is what will usually be true: make a contribution soon, then come back and reply to two other students' posts. (Moodle should show a completion checkmark when you have done that.)
5. This week does not have the usual homework. Instead, complete two practice tests and after grading your answers submit photos of your work (preferably using a shared folder in Google Drive, instructions here).
5b. During class we talked about an Example Savings Plan Spreadsheet. You can make your own copy and experiment with it as a makeup quiz (if you missed a quiz during the firs two weeks).
6. Perhaps go over Paula's weekly worksheet. If it is helpful, write out solutions for yourself to make sure you understand. You do not turn this in, but may contact me with specific questions if there are parts you don't get. Unfortunately, this worksheet does not have an answer key.
Next week we will have our first test. Begin preparing for it now! Test One covers everything we have done so far, plus "Which Equation to Use" which we will discuss next week. You will take this test during Week 4.
To Do List for Test One
Review your notes. Rewrite the most important things you have learned, helpful terms, and examples from each concept. Organize what we learned each class. Make useful notes to use on the test. The process of reviewing and rewriting is very helpful to get your brain organized and confident. Having carefully prepared notes will allow you to work efficiently during the test.
Review the activities and their answer keys, and your homework and quizzes.
Use Paula's review sheet.
Take lots of practice tests.
Share questions you have in the Get Help Forum.
Use other resources! Remember to look at the "Getting Help" section above.
MerriamWebster's history of why biweekly and bimonthly are ambiguous
Bankrate has an payout annutity calculator
Bankrate also has an installment loan calculator to find the monthly payment when you know the loan total
CalculatorSoup has an installment loan calculator to find the loan total when you know the monthly payment (set the Sales Tax, Down Payment, and Trade In Value to zero)
The Motley Fool page on account types
Wikipedia's page for IRAs
OCCU's page for Traditional vs. Roth IRAs (requires scrolling down a lot)
Investopedia's page about 529 Plans
Vanguard's pages for Get Smart on Investing
The current cost of TurboTax Premier as a warning not to foolishly leap into investing.
For steady withdrawls and low risk (but not low fees) use an annuity fund.
Investopedia's page on payout annuity funds
The Balance page on the fees in payout annuity funds
For steady withdrawls and low risk (but not low effort) use a "ladder" made of bonds or bank certificates of depoist.
The Motley Fool page on understanding Treasury bonds
Treasury Direct page about Treasury bonds
Treasury Direct page about Treasury bonds
Fidelity's page about bond ladders
For low fees and low risk (but not steady withdrawls) use a wholemarket exchange traded stock fund for a longterm investment.
ETF Report for IVV (for S&P500 Index)
ETF Report for MGC (for Entire U. S. Market)
For low fees and low risk (but not steady withdrawls) use a wholemarket exchange traded bond fund for a mediumterm investment.
ETF Report for AGG (for Aggregate Bond Index)
ETF Report for VTEB (for Government Bond Index)
For low fees and moderate withdrawl flexibility (but not low risk) use a broad collection of boring and reliable dividend stocks.
The Motley Fool page on Dividend Aristocrats
Kiplinger's Picks for 2021 Dividend Stocks
This week we take our first test to conclude the problem solving and finance chapters.
Then we start a new chapter, Describing Data. This branch of statistics is known as "descriptive" because we use it to describe what we see in the world around us. This week we will look at categorical data. Next week we will look at quantitative data. For both types of data we will learn how to analyze and create tables and graphs.
Whenever you get stuck use the Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week Four
1. Attend the Zoom sessions. The last 15 minutes of each Wednesday class has our weekly quiz. If you are ever absent, watch the archived videos of the lessons, ask questions, and check in by attending a study session or submitting a video of you doing math work.
2. Skim the textbook chapter about Describing Data. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
3. Complete this week's activity. Work on your own as much as you can. Then review the answer key. This item will not be collected. It is just for you to make sure that you can use the math topics we are learning.
4. This week's discussion forum is for for reflecting on your study skills and test preparation. The requirement is what will usually be true: make a contribution soon, then come back and reply to two other students' posts. (Moodle should show a completion checkmark when you have done that.)
5. Complete the homework, part A and part B, before the end of the week. Keep trying each homework assignment until you get 8 out of 10 or more.
Students vs. Mystery Group Data
Animation of Age Distributions in China and India
Animation of Age Distributions in the United States
Tips for using online math videos:
1. Be selective! Watch the videos that you want to know more about. If you're already familiar with a topic, you may not need to watch the video.
2. Reuse! If you find a video that is helpful, you may want to watch it more than once. Make a note and review the video at a later time.
3. Go further! If you don't understand something from a video, or would like to see more examples, post in the weekly Get Help Forum.
Categorical and Quantitative Data
Overview of Categorical Displays
This week we continue the Describing Data chapter by looking at quantitative data. Again we focus on analyzing and creating tables and graphs.
Whenever you get stuck use the Week Five Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week Five
0. Pick a math playground to do this week or weekend.
1. Attend the Zoom sessions. If you cannot, watch the archived videos of the lessons and check in by attending a study session or submitting a video of your math work.
2. Go over Paula's weekly worksheet. Write out the solutions for yourself, and make sure you understand. Contact me with specific questions if there are parts you don't get.
3. Skim the textbook chapter about Describing Data. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
4. Complete this week's activity (below). Work on your own as much as you can. Then review the answer key. This item will not be collected. It is just for you to make sure you can do the work we are learning. The activity is similar to questions you will see on the quizzes and tests.
5. This week's discussion forum is for critiquing a David Ramsey video named How to Drive Free Cars for LIFE!. Pay attention to how he presents and analyzes data. He is obviously a salesman promoting his book. What can you learn about salesmanship and describing data? (Don't get distracted by the validity of his financial advice, which we can discuss during class time.) Your contribution is due by Saturday night (preferably sooner). Then come back and reply to two other students' posts. (Your Moodle won't show completion until you have done the two reply posts).
6a. Complete the first homework by Saturday night (9 problems, no time limit, plan on 12 hours)
6b. Complete the second homework by Saturday night (7 problems, no time limit, plan on 12 hours)
7. The weekly quiz opens Thursday after class and is due Sunday night 11:59pm. (8 problems, 90 minute time limit)
Practice with Quantitative Data
Show your work or explain your thinking. There may be a few different methods that work.
1a. This table shows the data generated in a past term from counting how many times students could snap their fingers in 15 seconds. Each student recorded two attempts. Complete the table with your own attempt.
Person  Finger Snaps in 15 Sec 

Annette Azzlemahm  40 and 46 
Bronson Boldstock  54 and 57 
Clarabelle Crinkmack  47 and 48 
Dexter Dazzlespout  48 and 45 
Eliza Ebbletack  40 and 45 
Frederick Fiddlefeather  52 and 46 
Ginger Gupperworth  52 and 60 
Heathcliff Hablingford  57 and 20 
Your Attempts 
1b. Since there are so many different results possible, it makes sense to group the data into bins. Start by finding the highest and lowest values, and subtract to find the range of the data. Then divide your range by how many bins you want to use (between 5 and 9) to obtain the width of each bin.
2. Create a frequency distribution table. Your table might have fewer or more rows, if you chose to use fewer or more bins. Your starting and ending values might be different if your own attempt yielded especially low or high numbers.
Bin  Frequency (raw count)  Relative Frequency (as decimals)  Relative Frequency (as percentages) 

20 to ?  
? to ?  
? to ?  
? to ?  
? to ?  
? to 60  
Total 
3. Create a histogram to display the data you organized above. Start by marking the boundaries of your bins on the horizontal axis. Label the vertical axis with Frequency and label the horizontal axis with Number of Snaps in 15 sec. Indicate the scale you are using for each axis. Draw the rectangles above each bin with heights representing the frequency for that bin.
4. What percent of students in your group had fewer than 50 finger snaps in 15 seconds?
5. What percent of students had greater than 60 finger snaps in 15 seconds?
6. What percent of students had between 50 and 60 finger snaps in 15 seconds?
7a. Find the mean of this fingersnapping data set.
7b. Write a sentence that tells what the mean is and the significance in this particular context.
8a. Find the median of this fingersnapping data set.
8b. Write a sentence that tells what the median is and the significance in this particular context.
9a. Find the mode of this fingersnapping data set.
9b. Write a sentence that tells what the mode is and the significance in this particular context.
9c. Is it easier to see the mode from the original table of data or the ordered list you created when finding the median?
David Ramsey's video How to Drive Free Cars for LIFE!
LCC Career Community Survey Data with Graphs
Census 2014 Income Distribution
CBO's 2017 Wealth Transfer
One example project
Another example project
Tips for using online math videos:
1. Be selective! Watch the videos that you want to know more about. If you're already familiar with a topic, you may not need to watch the video.
2. Reuse! If you find a video that is helpful, you may want to watch it more than once. Make a note and review the video at a later time.
3. Go further! If you don't understand something from a video, or would like to see more examples, post in the weekly Get Help Forum.
This week we finish the Describing Data chapter by looking at measures of variation. Then we start our next chapter, Probability, by discussing likelihood and expected value.
Whenever you get stuck use the Week Six Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week Six
0. Share during class about your math playground if you have not yet done so.
1. Attend the Zoom sessions. If you cannot, watch the archived videos of the lessons and check in by attending a study session or submitting a video of your math work.
2a. Go over Paula's weekly worksheet. Write out the solutions for yourself, and make sure you understand. Contact me with specific questions if there are parts you don't get.
2b. Go over Paula's expected value worksheet. Write out the solutions for yourself, and make sure you understand. Contact me with specific questions if there are parts you don't get.
3a. Skim the textbook chapter about Describing Data. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
3b. Skim the textbook chapter about Probability. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
4. Complete this week's activity (below). Work on your own as much as you can. Then review the answer key. This item will not be collected. It is just for you to make sure you can do the work we are learning. The activity is similar to questions you will see on the quizzes and tests.
5. This week's discussion forum is about the Pareto Principle, which is a problem solving tool to helps you prioritize. After visiting the links in the references below, explain the basic idea in your own words. Then pick an example that stands out to you: do you agree? have you noticed this phenomenon? Your contribution is due by Saturday night (preferably sooner). Then come back and reply to two other students' posts. (Your Moodle won't show completion until you have done the two reply posts).
6a. Complete the homework #1 by Saturday night (6 problems, no time limit, plan on 12 hours)
6b. Complete the homework #2 by Saturday night (7 problems, no time limit, plan on 12 hours)
7a. The weekly quiz #1 opens Thursday after class and is due Sunday night 11:59pm. (7 problems, 90 minute time limit)
7b. The weekly quiz #2 opens Thursday after class and is due Sunday night 11:59pm. (4 problems, 90 minute time limit)
Next week we will have our second test. Begin preparing for it now! Test Two covers everything we have done so far. You will take this test during Week 7.
To Do List for Test Two
Review your notes, rewrite the most important things you have learned, helpful terms, and examples from each concept. Organize what we learned each class. Make a notes sheet for yourself to use on the test.
You are allowed to use your class notes on the test, but the process of reviewing and rewriting is very helpful to get your brain organized and confident.
Review the activities and their answer keys, and your homework and quizzes.
Work as many problems as possible on the review sheet.
Share questions you have in the Studying for Tests Get Help Forum.
For the test it will be important to write out your solutions while explaining your process. State your answer in a complete sentence. You will only get halfcredit (or less) for the correct answer alone.
Use the Math Resource Center! The link gives you a place to set up an appointment. Also see the "Getting Help" section at the top of our Moodle page.
Practice with Standard Deviation
Show your work or explain your thinking. There may be a few different methods that work.
1. Suppose a class was split into two teams of fourteen students for a fingersnapping contest. (Note: the two teams are considered two populations.) Find the mean for each team.
Red Team  Blue Team  

Data Value  Deviation  Deviation^{2}  Data Value  Deviation  Deviation^{2}  
50  50  
42  54  
30  50  
43  50  
41  43  
40  44  
44  59  
36  53  
45  49  
40  40  
42  10  
35  28  
41  45  
38  48 
2. Find the standard deviation for each team.
3. Which group had the higher mean?
4. Which group was more consistent at fingersnapping?
5. What conclusions can you arrive at if the standard deviation for the number of finger snaps for an entire group is zero?
6. One student answered that the only way that can happen is if everyone in the group had zero finger snaps. Is that student correct? Explain why or why not.
Practice with Likelihood and Expected Value
1. A charity is holding a raffle, selling 300 tickets. The ticket costs $5. The one winning ticket holder gets $500. What is the expected value for a person buying one ticket?
Outcome  Numeric Value  Probability  Product 

Win  
Lose  
Expected Value: 
2. If there were three winning tickets for $500 each, what would be the expected value for a person buying one ticket?
Outcome  Numeric Value  Probability  Product 

Win  
Lose  
Expected Value: 
For the following questions, write your answer as (a) a fraction, (b) a decimal with 2 decimal places, and finally (c) a percentage rounded to the nearest whole percent.
3a. The table below shows the number of credit cards owned by a group of individuals. If one person was chosen at random, find the probability that the person was female.
Zero  One  Two or More  Total  

Male  9  5  19  33 
Female  18  10  20  48 
Total  27  15  39  81 
3b. If one person was chosen at random, find the probability that the person was male and had two or more credit cards.
3c. If one person was chosen at random, find the probability that the person was male or had two or more credit cards.
3d. If one person with zero credit cards was chosen at random, find the probability that the person was female.
3e. If one person who is female was chosen at random, find the probability that the person was had zero credit cards.
Presenting Data slideshow
Variation among weights of apples and onions
Spreadsheet about retirement projections
Annuity Payout Calculator website
Paula's sample survey
Paula's video about how to create a survey
To go with the optional videos below, skip to page two for Paula's notes about expected value
To go with the optional videos below, the answer key for Paula's notes about expected value
Answer Key #1 to This Week's Activity
Tips for using online math videos:
1. Be selective! Watch the videos that you want to know more about. If you're already familiar with a topic, you may not need to watch the video.
2. Reuse! If you find a video that is helpful, you may want to watch it more than once. Make a note and review the video at a later time.
3. Go further! If you don't understand something from a video, or would like to see more examples, post in the weekly Get Help Forum.
Overview: Range and Standard Deviation
Examples: Range
Examples: Standard Deviation, Part 1
Examples: Standard Deviation, Part 2
Paula's first video on Expected Value
Paula's first video on Expected Value
This week is a holiday and our second test.
Whenever you get stuck use the Week Seven Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week Seven
0. Attend the Wednesday Zoom session. This is our test!
1. If you wish, explore our class library and maybe earn easy achievements.
2. Say or send a thank you to a classmate who has helped you this term.
3. Relax. You have earned a break!
This week we deepen our exploration of probability by looking at contingent, complementary, independent, and conditional events. We also use tree diagrams.
Whenever you get stuck use the Week Eight Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week Eight
1. Attend the Zoom sessions. If you cannot, watch the archived videos of the lessons and check in by attending a study session or submitting a video of your math work.
2. Go over Paula's weekly worksheet. Write out the solutions for yourself, and make sure you understand. Contact me with specific questions if there are parts you don't get.
3. Skim the textbook chapter about Probability. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
4. Complete this week's activity (below). Work on your own as much as you can. Then review the answer key. This item will not be collected. It is just for you to make sure you can do the work we are learning. The activity is similar to questions you will see on the quizzes and tests.
5. This week's discussion forum is about the difference between independent events and mutually exclusive events. Students sometimes mix the two ideas up. First, explain in your own words what independent events are, and what mutually exclusive events are. Then give four examples (two of each kind) from your life. (Avoid things like rolling dice and drawing cards!) Explain why you think your first two examples are independent, and your second two examples are mutually exclusive events? Your contribution is due by Saturday night (preferably sooner). Then come back and reply to two other students' posts. (Your Moodle won't show completion until you have done the two reply posts).
6. Complete the homework by Saturday night (6 problems, no time limit, plan on 12 hours)
7. The weekly quiz opens Thursday after class and is due Sunday night 11:59pm. (6 problems, 90 minute time limit)
Practice with Independent or Mutually Exclusive Events
1. Would the amount of time a customer spends browsing online have an impact on the amount of money they spend? To put it another way, is "Shopping Time" independent of "Money Spent"? Complete the table by finding the totals.
Shopping Time  $0 to $50 Spent  $51 to $100 Spent  $101 or More Spent  Total 

0 to 10 Minutes  30  35  18  
11 to 20 Minutes  22  42  20  
21 or More Minutes  5  13  15  
Total  200 
2. Can you make any conclusions from these numbers? Does shopping longer make you spend more?
For the follwing problems, write probabilities as decimals rounded to 2 decimal places.
3. What is the probability that a shopper spends 0 to 10 minutes shopping?
4. What is the probability that a shopper spends over 21 minutes shopping? (Name this event A.)
5. What is the probability that a shopper spends more than $100? (Name this event B.)
6. What is the probability that a shopper 0 to 10 minutes shopping and spends more than $100?
7. What is P(A and B)?
8. What is P(A) × P(B)?
9. Based on this information, do you think that shopping time and money spent are independent?
10. What is P(A or B)?
11. Find the probability that a shopper either spends 1120 minutes shopping, or over 21 minutes shopping.
Practice with Contingency Tables and Conditional Probability
Show your work or explain your thinking. There may be a few different methods that work.
1. According to the 2019 U.S. Census, the country's total population was 328,239,523 people. The Census only uses male and female genders: 50.8% of the population was female, and the rest male. The census does not ask about handedness, but other studies estimate 11.8% of males are lefthanded, and 9.6% of females are lefthanded. Use this information to fill out the table below.
Female  Male  Total  

Right Handed  
Left Handed  
Total 
For the follwing problems, use the following labels for situations: L = left handed, R = right handed, M = male, and F = female.
2. The statement "11.8% of males are lefthanded" can be rephrased as the probability a person is lefthanded, given that the person is male, is 11.8%. The notation for this conditional probability is P(LM) and we could write the equation P(LM) = 0.118. Write a similar equation for the statement "9.6% of females are lefthanded".
3. Would you say that gender and handedness are independent? That is, does one’s gender affect one’s likelihood of being left handed or right handed?
4. Recall that for independent events A and B, P(A and B) = P(A) × P(B). Can we say that P(M and L) = P(M) × P(L)?
5. n general, if events A and B are not independent, then we write P(A and B) = P(A) × P(BA). Knowing L and M are not independent, write P(M and L) as a product.
6. Knowing L and F are not independent, write P(F and L) as a product.
7. The DSM5 estimates that 0.005% to 0.014% of male newborns will experience gender dysphoria at some time in their life. Studies have linked high levels of maternal firsttrimester intrauterine testosterone to both lefthandedness and gender dysphoria. Furthermore, a 2001 study found 19.5% of its boys with gender dysphoria were lefthanded. Use this information to fill out the table below for Oregon's population of 700,000 boys of age 14 years or younger.
Boys without Gender Dysphoria  Boys without Gender Dysphoria  Total  

Right Handed  
Left Handed  
Total 
For the follwing problems, use the following labels for situations: L = left handed, R = right handed, N = boy without Gender Dysphoria, and Y = boy with Gender Dysphoria.
8. Find low and high estimates of P(LN).
9. Find low and high estimates of P(NL).
10. Find low and high estimates of P(LY).
11. Find low and high estimates of P(YL).
12. Remind yourself about the probability "or" formula, and then find low and high estimates of P(Y or L).
U.S. Census Bureau Quick Facts
Tips for using online math videos:
1. Be selective! Watch the videos that you want to know more about. If you're already familiar with a topic, you may not need to watch the video.
2. Reuse! If you find a video that is helpful, you may want to watch it more than once. Make a note and review the video at a later time.
3. Go further! If you don't understand something from a video, or would like to see more examples, post in the weekly Get Help Forum.
Probabilities of Independent Events: P(A and B)
Probability of Two Events: P(A or B)
Probabilities from a Table: AND and OR
Conditional Probability with Cards
This week we finish our exploration of probability by looking at permutations and combinations, and conditional probability.
Whenever you get stuck use the Week Nine Get Help Forum.
To Do List for Week Nine
1. Attend the Zoom sessions. If you cannot, watch the archived videos of the lessons and check in by attending a study session or submitting a video of your math work.
2. Go over Paula's weekly worksheet. Write out the solutions for yourself, and make sure you understand. Contact me with specific questions if there are parts you don't get.
3. Skim the textbook chapter about Probability. Be ready to use it as a resource when doing this week's work.
4. Complete this week's activity (below). Work on your own as much as you can. Then review the answer key. This item will not be collected. It is just for you to make sure you can do the work we are learning. The activity is similar to questions you will see on the quizzes and tests.
5. This week's discussion forum is about comparing the currend pandemic with the 1918 Spanish Flu. Consider the world population in 1918 and 2019. Consider how many people caught each disease, and died from each disease. What percentage of the world population died from each disease? What else do you wonder about these or other pandemics—what would you like to know or research to gain a better perspective on the scope or magnitude of these pandemics? Your contribution is due by Saturday night (preferably sooner). Then come back and reply to two other students' posts. (Your Moodle won't show completion until you have done the two reply posts).
6a. Complete the homework #1 by Saturday night (11 problems, no time limit, plan on 12 hours)
6b. Complete the homework #2 by Saturday night (11 problems, no time limit, plan on 12 hours)
7. The weekly quiz opens Thursday after class and is due Sunday night 11:59pm. (10 problems, 90 minute time limit)
Practice with Counting Permutations and Combinations
For each question, first decide if you are dealing with a permutation or a combination. Then answer the question and show your work.
1. The local pizzeria offers a choice of 2 pizzas (supreme or vegetarian), 3 sides (chips, salad, or coleslaw), and 4 drinks (juice, coke, ginger beer, or water). For dinner I decide to have 1 pizza, 1 side, and 1 drink. How many possible meals do I have to choose from?
2. How many different car plates could be made if each will display 4 letters followed by 2 numbers? Assume repetition is allowed.
3. How many different car plates could be made if each will display 4 letters followed by 2 numbers? Assume repetition is not allowed.
4. Your friend wants to perform a magic trick and asks you to draw 2 cards from a standard deck of 52. The first card you draw must be placed face down, and the second card placed face up on the table. How many ways are there of drawing the two cards?
5a. In an 18 team league, how many ways can the 8 teams for the finals be decided?
5b. In an 18 team league, how many ways can the first 4 positions be decided?
6. A child wants to draw a picture using only three different colours from a set containing twelve different colour pencils. In how many ways can the colours be chosen?
7. In the front of a building there are three doors each to be painted a different colour from twelve different available colours. How many colour arrangements for the doors are there?
Information Is Beautiful presents Infectious Diseases
Our World in Data describes the Spanish Flu
CDC page on the 1918 Pandemic
CDC page on the COVID19 Pandemic
WHO page on the COVID19 Pandemic
Tips for using online math videos:
1. Be selective! Watch the videos that you want to know more about. If you're already familiar with a topic, you may not need to watch the video.
2. Reuse! If you find a video that is helpful, you may want to watch it more than once. Make a note and review the video at a later time.
3. Go further! If you don't understand something from a video, or would like to see more examples, post in the weekly Get Help Forum.
Week 10 is a review week. We will do many practice finals.
The acronym OER stands for Open Educational Resources. Different OER materials have different rules for how they may be shared, copied, or modified.
I am slightly protective of my explanations of math concepts. These explanations are written for a specific audience. It is easy for a paraphrase to unknowingly explain math concepts badly. In some places my written explanations unexplicitly take into consideration my accompanying lecture style. For those reasons, I ask that other educators please contact me before modifying my math concept explanations. However, you may share or copy my math concept explanations verbatim as much as you wish if you provide attribution with a mention of this website.
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